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Alternative Fuels

Nowhere, perhaps, 与替代燃料的开发和改进相比,脱碳之旅是否经历了更大的地震变化. While users have traditionally been relegated to few options other than diesel, biodiesel and natural gas, progress is being made on several fronts to expand those choices dramatically. 

For years, SMS Equipment has been closely monitoring developments in the field of alternative fuels, recognizing it as the “new normal” it is sure to become. To that end, we’ve assembled a highly-skilled, 消息灵通的团队,帮助我们的客户了解什么将-和不会-满足他们的需求,今天和前进. Many innovative solutions will require time to mature, develop a supporting infrastructure, gain widespread acceptance, etc. The current, readily available options, however, 对于任何寻求解决脱碳问题的前瞻性公司来说,这是否能成为一个理想的起点. 

The road less travelled is soon to get very crowded. Let SMS Equipment help you consider the alternatives.

The established alternative
Bio-diesel
Biodiesel, manufactured from soybeans, canola, vegetable oils or animal fats, is the most common and best-known alternative diesel fuel. When used as a diesel fuel substitute, biodiesel can offer considerable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefits and reduce engine part wear.

The next-generation alternative
Renewable diesel
Renewable diesel, or HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil), offers significant improvements over traditional biodiesel. The “greenest” diesel on the market, it is odorless and colorless and delivers impressive performance benefits. Created by hydroprocessing vegetable oils, fats and waste cooking oil, along with other biomass feedstock like garbage, wood and agricultural waste, renewable diesel must meet the same ASTM standards as its petroleum-based counterpart. It can be used as a diesel substitute (up to 100%, 没有混合壁限制),没有修改车辆燃料系统或加油站设备. It is also stable in long-term storage and does not block fuel filters. Other benefits include: enhanced vehicle performance, a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, improved mileage, reduced maintenance demands and superior performance in cold weather. 

The fuel of the future
Hydrogen
One of the most abundant resources on the planet, hydrogen burns with zero carbon emissions, and can be produced from green energy. Although the market for hydrogen as a transportation fuel is in its infancy, government and industry are working toward clean, economical, and safe hydrogen production and distribution. The prospect for hydrogen use as an alt fuel is promising, 一方面是因为内燃机可以改装成氢燃料发动机,另一方面是因为氢燃料发动机的主要废物是水蒸气, not carbon dioxide. Also, unlike gasoline, hydrogen burns well in “fuel-lean conditions,“其中氧气远远多于燃料,这提高了燃油效率,同时大大减少了氮氧化物的排放. 

Alternative Fuels FAQ

根据生命周期分析,替代燃料或清洁燃料产生的温室气体排放量比传统的石油燃料低得多. Life cycle analysis is used to assess the environmental impacts of all stages of a product's life, including raw material extraction, processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, and disposal or recycling. When comparing fuels, a life cycle analysis may focus on particular portions of a fuel's life cycle, such as from extraction-to-use, also referred to as well-to-wheels, to determine the merits or problems associated with each fuel.

Here in Canada, the motivation is compliance with the Canadian Net-Zero Emissions Accountability Act, 将加拿大政府到2050年实现温室气体净零排放的承诺写入立法,并为实现这一目标提供问责制和透明度框架. 它的主要观点包括建立一个具有法律约束力的程序,以设定五年的国家减排目标,并制定可信的目标, science-based emissions-reduction plans to achieve each target. In addition, 它将2030年的温室气体排放目标作为加拿大在《全国最大的彩票平台》下的国家自主贡献(NDC),到2030年在2005年的基础上减排40- 45%. The Act also establishes a requirement to set national emissions reduction targets for 2035, 2040, and 2045, ten years in advance. Each target will require credible, science-based emissions reduction plans to achieve it. 

There are a number of varied alternative fuels including:
  • Cellulosic ethanol
  • Biodiesel
  • Renewable diesel
  • Sustainable aviation fuel
  • Renewable natural gas
  • Renewable propane
  • Hydrogen

生物柴油是由植物油等可再生材料制成的柴油发动机中使用的柴油燃料替代品, waste cooking oil, animal fats, fish oil, algae oil, and potentially from cellulosic feedstock.

重点:生物柴油已经在传统柴油动力汽车中找到了自己的位置,通常可以以高达20%的浓度混合. 美国环保署表示,与传统的石油基柴油相比,生物柴油排放的一氧化碳含量可降低11%,颗粒物含量可降低10%.

Renewable diesel, is also known as HVO (hydrotreated vegetable oil), or HDRD (hydrogenation derived renewable diesel) and is certified to EN15940. 可再生柴油的处理与传统柴油相同,因为可再生柴油是一种一次性燃料, it meets ASTM D975 specification for petroleum diesel, and can be seamlessly blended, transported, and even co-processed with petroleum diesel.

Point of Interest: Commonly produced from vegetable oil, waste cooking oil, animal fats, fish oil, inedible corn oil, and algae oil, 它可以减少高达75%的温室气体排放,同时提供的能量密度约为标准柴油的96%. 

No, they are not. Renewable diesel, previously known as green diesel, is a hydrocarbon produced most often by hydrotreating but also via gasification, pyrolysis, and other biochemical and thermochemical technologies. It meets ASTM D975 specification for petroleum diesel. Biodiesel, as mentioned, is a diesel fuel substitute made from renewable materials. It meets ASTM D6751 and is approved for blending with petroleum diesel.

Yes. While Biodiesel, if blended above 5%, may require modifications to vehicle fuel systems and fuel station equipment, renewable diesel requires neither. In addition, renewable diesel can be either fully substituted for diesel or blended in any amount (biodiesel  is not recommended for blending above 5%); and it is stable in long-term storage, 不会吸收大量的水分,也不会导致燃料过滤器堵塞——生物柴油的所有缺点.

While not as beneficial in achieving Net-Zero goals, biodiesel, 它的一氧化碳排放量比传统柴油低11%,颗粒物排放量比传统柴油低10%, is still a great first step in reducing one’s carbon footprint. 生物柴油也已经广泛使用,目前在大多数地区正在与传统柴油混合使用. Because it also offers better lubrication properties than Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel, 与以石油为基础的柴油相比,它可以延长发动机寿命,并在燃烧过程中减少高达85%的致癌物含量.

Hydrogen (H2) is an alternative fuel that can be produced from varied domestic resources. Although the market for hydrogen as a transportation fuel is in its infancy, government and industry are working toward clean, economical, 以及广泛用于燃料电池电动汽车(fcev)的安全制氢和分配。. 

重点:轻型氢燃料电池汽车已经在国内和国外的局部地区以有限的数量提供给消费者市场. The market is also developing for buses, material handling equipment (such as forklifts), ground support equipment, medium- and heavy-duty trucks, and marine vessels. 

它是由纤维素(植物的粘稠纤维)而不是从植物的种子或果实中产生的乙醇(乙醇). It can be produced from grasses, wood, algae, or other plants. 纤维素乙醇比玉米乙醇含有更多的净能量,排放的温室气体也少得多. Ethanol is a fuel that is being blended with gasoline today. A popular use case for this type of fuel is in high-performance vehicles.

重点:与玉米乙醇相比,纤维素乙醇含有更多的净能量,并排放更少的温室气体. And, once the infrastructure for it is in place, cellulosic ethanol will work for any flex-fuel vehicle capable of running on E85.

SAF是一种来自可再生资源的燃料,与传统燃料相比,可以减少净生命周期二氧化碳排放量. When SAF is blended with conventional jet fuel, it meets ASTM D1655, which allows it to be used in existing aircraft and infrastructure. 

重点:一系列不同的生物质和原料类型可用于制造燃料和, because some commercial airlines have already successfully used it, a certain level of future use/demand is ensured.

可再生天然气是一种管道质量的天然气,与传统天然气完全可互换,因此可用于天然气汽车. RNG本质上是经过处理达到纯度标准的沼气(有机物分解的气态产物). Like conventional natural gas, 可再生天然气可作为运输燃料,以压缩天然气(CNG)或液化天然气(LNG)的形式使用。. 

重点:除了减少甲烷(温室气体)排放的明显好处之外, the use of RNG can provide benefits in terms of fuel security, economic revenues or savings, and improvements in local air quality where the gasses are captured. i.e burning it does not improve air quality, capturing the gas from the biomass does.

Renewable propane is a fuel that can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including soybean oil, used cooking oil and animal tallow. 如今,最常见的可再生丙烷是用大豆油生产可再生柴油过程的副产品. 

重点:用于生产可再生丙烷的来源不仅是大多数人认为是废物的材料,还包括植物物质,如玉米. By 2050, renewable propane could meet half the world’s demand for propane, according to the World LP Gas Association.

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